On January 6, CMA issued "2011 China¡¯s climate report" in Beijing. This report pointed out that in 2011 China¡¯s climate was generally warm and dry; China¡¯s average temperature was moderately high and 2011 was continuously the 15th warm year; China¡¯s average precipitation was the minimum of nearly 60 years; rain belt of flood season moved towards north; regional and periodical meteorological disaster occurred frequently. According to preliminary statistics, in 2011, the direct economic loss caused by main meteorological disasters was 303 billion yuan, which was higher than the average number from 1990 to 2010. 1049 people were lost or missed, fewer than normal years.
According to data, the average temperature of China in 2011 was 9.3¡æ, 0.5¡æ higher than the normal years. Days of high temperature in southern China were more than normal level.
Under the background of higher average temperature, the precipitation of 2011 was less. China¡¯s average annual precipitation was 556.8mm, 9% less than the normal years as well as the minimum since 1951. From winter to next summer, the precipitation was continuously less. The situation was "flood in the north and drought in the south".
According to the monitoring, in both 2010 and 2011, China¡¯s average temperature was higher than the normal level while the precipitation of 2010 was the 2nd maximum in record but the precipitation of 2011 was the minimum. As for this, Song Lianchun, Director-general of National Climate Center, said that in the backdrop of global warming, both the liquid water content and the water-holding capacity in the atmosphere were increasing. In the past, only a little vapor could cause rainfall, but now more vapor were needed. So the average precipitation fluctuated increasingly. This was in line with the monitoring of the meteorological department.
Song Lianchun said that in the flood season of 2011 the rain belt moved towards north. The annual precipitation of the Yangtze River Valley was less than 1000mm, the 1st time in record since 1979 and the minimum in the past 33 years. The precipitation of the Huaihe River Valley and the Pearl River Valley was less and has been the minimum since 2005; the precipitation of Songhua River Valley and Liaohe River Valley was less than 2010. In the Yellow River Valley and North China, the precipitation was more, among which the precipitation of Beijing was 25% more and was over 700mm. In West China, the precipitation in autumn was more the normal level, which has been the maximum since nearly 36 years.
In 2011, regional and periodical meteorological disaster occurred frequently. Continuous drought from autumn to winter attacked North China and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley, which has been the most serious one in the past 41 years. In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze, the continuous drought has been the most serious one in the past 6 decades. But in June, flood hit there. Southwest China suffered the most serious drought in nearly 6 decades, West China and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley got flood in September. South part of South China suffered heavy rainstorm in October. Heavy rainfall caused severe inland inundation in Beijing. The temperatures of many places hit record.
As for the fog and haze, Song pointed out that from September to December, central and eastern China got large-scale heavy fog for 15 times. Beijing got such weather for 9 times.
From September to October, the intensity of cold air in central and eastern China was weak while the warm and wet stream was strong. So it was hard for the pollution to disperse. Meanwhile, China¡¯s climate was so unique that dust, sand and particulate matter in the relevant regions would become clear. (Jan 11)
Editor Kong Yan